The Tomb of the Unknown Soldier is located in Arlington National Cemetery, in Virginia, United States and is one of the most symbolic and hollowed sites in the country. The tomb represents and is dedicated to the U.S. service members lost but never identified in the nation’s wars.
The tomb was originally constructed just after WWI to bury a single unknown American soldier killed during the Great War. The idea was “to bring home the body of an unknown American warrior who in himself represents no section, creed, or race in the late war and who typifies, moreover, the soul of America and the supreme sacrifice of her heroic dead.”
Although it’s an iconic place in America, there are many traditions and stories relating to the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier, some of which you may not know.
The Unknown Soldier received the Medal of Honor and Victoria Cross
The Unknown Soldier was buried in a state funeral on November 11, 1921. The ceremony was attended by President Warren G. Harding and other foreign dignitaries. Harding placed the United States’ highest award – the Medal of Honor – on top of the casket. A Victoria Cross was also placed on the casket, along with other nations’ highest awards.
Four soldiers were removed from graves in France
To select the soldier to be buried within the tomb, four unknown soldiers killed during WWI were exhumed from their graves in France. Before being sent to the US, the remains of the four men were placed in caskets and arranged in random order in the city hall of Châlons-sur-Marne. Sgt. Edward F. Younger of Headquarters Company, 2nd Battalion, 50th Infantry was selected to choose one of the caskets.
Sgt. Younger then placed a spray of white roses on one of the caskets. The Unknown was then sent to the US to be interred in the tomb.
WWII and Korean War unknows were interred in the tomb
After WWII, many Americans supported the idea of placing an Unknown Soldier from WWII into the tomb but plans to do this were halted by the start of the Korean War in June 1950. Finally, in August 1956, three years after the Korean War ended, President Dwight D. Eisenhower approved the internment of an Unknown from WWII and Korea.
After being selected, the Unknowns from Korea and WWII arrived in Washington D.C. on May 28, 1958. For two days they remained in the Capitol Rotunda. After this, they were placed into crypts to the west of the WWI Unknown in the Arlington National Cemetery.
Selecting a soldier from WWII was complicated
Choosing an Unknown from WWII was difficult, considering American troops fought in a number of different theaters. Choosing a soldier from one theater would not represent all those lost in the war, and as a result, 13 Unknowns were selected from North Africa and Europe. Major General Edward J. O’Neill selected one of the caskets to represent those lost in the European and North African theaters.
For the Pacific, five Unknowns were exhumed and taken to Hickam Air Force Base, Hawaii. Air Force Colonel Glenn T. Eagleston selected one out of the five to represent those lost in the Pacific.
Navy Hospital Corpsman 1st Class William R. Charette chose one of the two, which was then taken to Arlington National Cemetery. The WWII Unknown who was not chosen was given a burial at sea.
The Old Guard
The Old Guard is perhaps the most well-known part of the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier. Since April 6, 1948, members of The Old Guard have stood by the tomb 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, 365 days a year. The members are from the 3rd U.S. Infantry Regiment and are also used in other military-related events.
Trained and disciplined to an extremely high level, every movement and action by Sentinels from The Old Guard has meaning. According to the Arlington National Cemetery Website:
“The Guard marches 21 steps down the black mat behind the Tomb, turns and faces east for 21 seconds, turns and faces north for 21 seconds, and then takes 21 steps down the mat. Next, the Guard executes a sharp ‘shoulder-arms’ movement to place his/her weapon on the shoulder closest to the visitors, signifying that he or she stands between the Tomb and any possible threat. The number 21 symbolizes the highest symbolic military honor that can be bestowed: the 21-gun salute.”