Haunting Photos – The Bombed Out Ruins of Cologne In WWII

The German city of Cologne was bombed in 262 separate air raids by the Allies during World War II, including 31 times by the Royal Air Force (RAF). Air raid alarms went off in the winter/spring of 1940 as enemy bombers passed overhead. However, the first actual bombing took place on 12 May 1940.

The First 1000 Bomber Rain in History

The most notable attack on Cologne was the first Allied 1,000 bomber raid on 30/31 May 1942. The RAF Bomber Command under the leadership of Arthur Harris was seeking a way to demoralize the German population and war effort. The War Department believed that they could overwhelm German night fighter and flak defenses by making a huge strike in a smaller 90 minute window.

Hamburg was the original choice for the attack, but was eliminated at the last minute due to poor weather conditions. Additionally, it was advised that Cologne would be a better target because of the RAF’s use of the GEE technology that allowed them to navigate and bomb more accurately, which couldn’t be accomplished with Hamburg because of the increased distance.

RAF Bomber Command drew additional bombers and pilots from nearly every available sphere in order to reach the 1000 plane mark for the operation. This task was made more difficult when, at the last days, RAF Coastal Command bombers were pulled from the operation. The Navy had decided that the propaganda benefits of the raid didn’t justify the decreased protection from U-Boat attacks that Coastal Command was responsible for.

As the RAF was in the process of transitioning away from 2 engine medium bombers to the heavy 4 engine craft of the Lancasters and Halifax bombers, the raid drew on over 300 of these larger capacity planes. In total, 1047 aircraft were used in the operation with a total of 868 striking the intended target area and 15 striking alternative targets.

Casualties were not excessive for the raid for a number of reasons. First, the box formation of the bombers allowed for better protection from night fighters. Additionally, the sheer numbers of bombers overwhelmed the fighter and flak defense net of the German Luftwaffe. Also, “intruder” raids were sent to other targets in order to keep the German night fighters occupied elsewhere and unable to be redirected towards Cologne.

In total the RAF lost 43 aircraft by British reports (44 by German tallies). Of those, only 22 were shot down in the vicinity of Cologne itself.

Devastation of the Raid

The raid on Cologne used mostly incendiaries and therefore, the majority of damage was not attributed the explosions themselves but to the fires that they started. The Cologne fire brigade authority reported over 5,000 non-residential buildings were damaged with 3300 of those destroyed. There were over 1700 fires classified as “large” by local authorities.

By war’s end the city of Cologne had seen damage of epic proportions rivaled, perhaps only by the infernos created by the bombing of Tokyo and other Japanese cities.

During the 1939 to 1945 period the Royal Air Force dropped 34,711 long tons of bombs on the Cologne.

agnesviertel
View to the city districts Nippes, Riehl und Altstadt Nord. In background church St. Agnes and the square Ebertplatz, Riehler Strasse and Reichenspergerplatz with the building of the higher regional court.

 

2Cologne
Rhine crossing at Cologne. The Cathedral Remained Standing.
bomb02
Cathedral and central station.

 

bridge
Destroyed Hohenzollern-Bridge.

 

bruce_cathedral
Pvt. Harry Roeder, 504th Military Police Battalion, took this photo showing the damages to the Cathedral.

 

cathedral
Lt. Wick Goist at Cologne Cathedral.

 

cathedral_jimmy wood
Photo shows the damages to the Cathedral.
ce-cologne2
Image of the cathedral. Notice the shadow of the bomber.

 

cologne_cathedral_from_B17
Aerial Photo of the cathedral and bridge.

 

CologneRailBridge
Central station and destroyed bridge Hohenzollernbrücke.

 

issara_1
The Shunting yard Kalk-North and  bomb explosions around a little train station within an industrial area.  

 

kloesterchen
On the right side a hospital called “Krankenhaus der Augustinerinnen” in Cologne called “Severins-Klösterchen” too. The church nearby is the church “Kartäuserkirche” and the streets around are called “Jakobstrasse” and “Kartäusergasse”. The cologne city district is “Altstadt Süd”.
koeln_hohenzollernbruecke
The destroyed bridge “Hohenzollernbrücke”.

 

kriegmuelheim
One of destroyed the bridge “Mülheimer Brücke”

 

kriegneumarkt
Devastated Residential District

 

mcpic067
Cathedral and ruins.

 

norman1
St. Aposteln at square Neumarkt.

 

norman2
The area around square Heumarkt.

 

norman3
Cathedral and in foreground the destroyed Hindenburg bridge.

 

norman4
Ruins and the cathedral.

 

pp-cologne
Railway Station

 

recon_gereon
Cologne center between Street Kaiser-Wilhelm-Ring and the buildings around Appellhofplatz. In the center of the photo church St. Gereon.

 

ross1
Destroyed Bridges.

 

ross2
Heavily damage residential and business sector.
trotman2
Railway Station and Cathedral.

 

trotman3
Industrial area near railway.

 

war14
A B-24 flying over the city.

 

war10
Aerial view city district Deutz, background Cathedral, train station Deutz in the middle of the picture.

war11Aerial view, area around building Dischhaus and church St. Kolumba. In background coming from left side to right side the street Hohe Strasse