Fast Battleships of WWII: South Dakota Class in Photos

 
 
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During the late 1930s, as the world drew closer to the Second World War, the General Board of the United States Navy met to discuss the two North Carolina-class battleships which had been assigned to the FY1937 building project.

The initial suggestion was for two more North Carolinas to be added to the program, but Chief of Naval Operations Admiral William H. Standley wanted the new ships to also be of a new design. Thus, the beginning of the South Dakota-class ships was marked.

The design was first drafted in March 1937, and several designs were proposed in a bid to eliminate all or most of the deficiencies known in the North Carolina-class battleships, without significantly increasing weight. Such deficiencies included inadequate subaquatic protection and outdated turbine engines.

North Carolina underway on 3 June 1946. By this time, many of the light anti-aircraft weapons (Bofors 40 mm and Oerlikon 20 mm) mounted during the war had been removed, while more modern radars had been mounted on its forefunnel and mainmast.
North Carolina underway on 3 June 1946. By this time, many of the light anti-aircraft weapons (Bofors 40 mm and Oerlikon 20 mm) mounted during the war had been removed, while more modern radars had been mounted on its forefunnel and mainmast.

Also, the North Carolinas had insufficient space to act as flagships. The final draft for two battleships was accepted on 4 January 1938, and on 4 April 1938 the ships were formally ordered.

A preliminary design of the South Dakota class
A preliminary design of the South Dakota class

Due to the worsening situations in Europe and Asia and increasing signs of an outbreak of war, Congress approved the production of an extra two battleships based on the new design.

South Dakota under construction in April 1940 at the New York Shipbuilding Corporation shipyard, Camden, New Jersey
South Dakota under construction in April 1940 at the New York Shipbuilding Corporation shipyard, Camden, New Jersey

Generally, the South Dakota-class battleships had an overall length of 680 feet, and a standard displacement of 39,200 tons while displacing 49,861 tons in full load. The ships were propelled by geared steam turbines provided by General Electric and Westinghouse, and had a speed of 27.5 knots and a range of over 15,000 nautical miles.

The U.S. Navy battleship USS South Dakota (BB-57) anchored in Hvalfjörður, Iceland, on 24 June 1943.
The U.S. Navy battleship USS South Dakota (BB-57) anchored in Hvalfjörður, Iceland, on 24 June 1943.

For armament, they had a main battery of nine 16″/45 caliber Mark 6 guns, similar to the North Carolinas. The secondary armament was anti-aircraft guns comprising twenty 5-inch/38 caliber dual purpose guns, 64 Bofors 1.57-inch/56 guns, and 77 20mm/70 guns.

South Dakota shows the range of independent elevation of her main guns
South Dakota shows the range of independent elevation of her main guns

The South Dakotas, unlike the North Carolinas, were designed to withstand 16-inch shellfire. Their immune zone against the 2,240lb projectiles ranged from 17,000 to 30,900 yards. They had significant main battery turret protection which was 18 inches thick.

Their underwater guard comprised four longitudinal torpedo bulkheads, which could absorb an underwater explosion equivalent to about 700 pounds of Trinitrotoluene (TNT) from a depth of up to 17.9 feet.

Secondary Battery Control and light AA guns aboard the South Dakota (BB-57) in the Atlantic, 1943.
Secondary Battery Control and light AA guns aboard the South Dakota (BB-57) in the Atlantic, 1943.

Within the South Dakota class existed four fast battleships: the South Dakota, Indiana, Massachusetts and Alabama.

The South Dakota was part of Task Force 64 (TF 64), a battleship group that also included the North Carolina-class ship Washington and four destroyers. Together they intercepted a Japanese bombardment force on 15 November 1942.

Alabama in Casco Bay, Maine circa December 1942.
Alabama in Casco Bay, Maine circa December 1942.

In the Second Naval Battle of Guadalcanal, TF 64 damaged Japanese cruisers Takao and Atago and forced the scuttling of the battleship Kirishima and destroyer Ayanami.

The U.S. battleship USS Washington (BB-56) firing upon the Japanese battleship Kirishima, during the Naval Battle of Guadalcanal on 14-15 November 1942.
The U.S. battleship USS Washington (BB-56) firing upon the Japanese battleship Kirishima, during the Naval Battle of Guadalcanal on 14-15 November 1942.

The South Dakota also took part in the Battle of Tarawa among its other battles. She was present at the Surrender of Japan in September 1945. On January 31, 1947, she was decommissioned.

Indiana began operations off Guadalcanal when her sister South Dakota needed repairs. Her primary function was shore bombardment, in support of the Marines engaging Japanese forces on the island.

Indiana leading Massachusetts and the heavy cruisers Chicago and Quincy shortly before the bombardment of Kamaishi on 14 July 1945. This photo was taken from South Dakota.
Indiana leading Massachusetts and the heavy cruisers Chicago and Quincy shortly before the bombardment of Kamaishi on 14 July 1945. This photo was taken from South Dakota.

She later took part in the invasion of Tarawa, during which she shot down her first aircraft. Indiana was also involved in actions such as the invasion of the Marshall Islands, the invasion of Hollandia, the bombardment of Truk, and the bombardment of Iwo Jima, among others. She continued to serve until the end of the war in August 1945.

Massachusetts cruising at 15 knots off Point Wilson, Washington on 11 July 1944
Massachusetts cruising at 15 knots off Point Wilson, Washington on 11 July 1944

Massachusetts was the third ship in this class. She served as a flagship in Operation Torch, the Allied invasion of North Africa. Following her success in the North Africa campaign, she received an overhaul and was sent to the South Pacific theater to support operations there. On 27 March 1947, she was decommissioned and sent to the Atlantic Reserve Fleet.

Massachusetts underway
Massachusetts underway

Alabama was the fourth and final member of the South Dakota class. In August, she was sent to the Pacific theater, where she served with the U.S. Third Fleet during amphibious missions in the Gilbert Islands.

Alabama during her shakedown in 1942
Alabama during her shakedown in 1942

Alabama shot down her first enemy aircraft in March 1944, and during the Battle of the Philippine Sea, she conducted anti-aircraft operations. Later, she went to the Marianas Islands to provide gunfire support for ground troops. She also saw action in the Battle of Leyte Gulf and in the air raid at Kyushu. On 1 June 1962, she was removed from the Naval Register.

USS Alabama in 2008 moored as a museum ship in Mobile.Photo Lowesvisa CC BY 3.0
USS Alabama in 2008 moored as a museum ship in Mobile.Photo Lowesvisa CC BY 3.0

The South Dakota is memorialized at Sioux Falls, South Dakota. Indiana was sold for scrap for $418,387. Massachusetts is located at Battleship Cove, a maritime museum in Massachusetts. Alabama resides in Mobile, Alabama, as a museum ship and the main attraction of Battleship Memorial Park.

5 inch turrets aboard USS Massachusetts (BB-59). Taken during refueling from the T3-S2-A1 class Kaskaskia (AO-27) during a storm at sea, 17 October 1944.
5 inch turrets aboard USS Massachusetts (BB-59). Taken during refueling from the T3-S2-A1 class Kaskaskia (AO-27) during a storm at sea, 17 October 1944.

 

Chief petty officer (CPO) selectees, assigned to U.S. Naval War College, Naval Station Newport, and Naval Undersea Warfare Center in Newport, R.I., arrive onboard the South Dakota class battleship, USS Massachusetts (BB-59), in Fall River, Mass., to participate in a community relations (COMREL) project.
Chief petty officer (CPO) selectees, assigned to U.S. Naval War College, Naval Station Newport, and Naval Undersea Warfare Center in Newport, R.I., arrive onboard the South Dakota class battleship, USS Massachusetts (BB-59), in Fall River, Mass., to participate in a community relations (COMREL) project.

 

The USS Alabama Battleship is a South Dakota-class battleship. Alabama was commissioned in 1942 and served in World War II in the Atlantic and Pacific theaters.Photo: Nicolas Chadeville CC BY 4.0
The USS Alabama Battleship is a South Dakota-class battleship. Alabama was commissioned in 1942 and served in World War II in the Atlantic and Pacific theaters.Photo: Nicolas Chadeville CC BY 4.0

 

USS Ringgold (DD-500) and a South Dakota-class battleship, in 1945, as seen from the deck of USS Lexington (CV-16).
USS Ringgold (DD-500) and a South Dakota-class battleship, in 1945, as seen from the deck of USS Lexington (CV-16).

Read another story from us: Veteran served aboard battleship USS Washington during several WWII campaigns

USS Alabama (BB-60), Battleship Memorial Park – Mobile, Alabama.Photo: Tony Webster CC BY 2.0
USS Alabama (BB-60), Battleship Memorial Park – Mobile, Alabama.Photo: Tony Webster CC BY 2.0

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