The Ace Fighter cult came to prominence during the First World War, which was the first conflict that utilized the use of aircraft in a larger scale. The notorious Red Baron, Manfred von Richthofen was one of the first to establish the “ace” tradition within the German Air Force. He was dubbed the ace-of-aces with 80 credited aerial victories.
Prior to WWII, Luftwaffe underwent serious changes, disobeying the terms of the Treaty of Versailles that forbade Germany to develop an air force. Hermann Goering ignored the agreement and started to build up for a future war in the 1930’s.
The German air armada produced 119,871 airplanes in a period between 1939 and 1945. The pilots who manned those planes were respected and popular in the Third Reich and the stories of their victories were often part of the Nazi propaganda campaign. The Luftwaffe operated with 3,400,000 personnel throughout the war.
German day and night fighter pilots claimed roughly 70,000 aerial victories during World War II, 25,000 over British or American and 45,000 over Russian flown aircraft. Their losses, on the other hand, were high as well ― approximately 14,800 day and night pilots lost their life and 6,900 were wounded in action. The Luftwaffe had 103 pilots who shot down over 100 airplanes. Note that a fighter ace needs to shoot down five or more enemy aircraft to earn his title.
10. Theodor Weissenberger – 208 kills
Weissenberger’s military career began in 1936, when he volunteered in the Luftwaffe, after gaining experience as a civilian glider pilot. He was attached to the heavy fighter squadron Jagdgeschwader 77 in 1941, just after finishing his training. Weissenberger claimed his first victory on the skies over Norway against the RAF on October 24, 1941.
From that point on he carried out 23 more aerial victories and received the German Cross in Gold. In 1942, he was transferred to another unit, Jagdgeschwader 5, where he received an another prestigious medal ― the Knight’s Cross of the Iron Cross, after achieving 38 kills.
Later, in November 1944, he took additional training to master the Me 262 jet fighter, thus becoming the commander of the first operational jet fighter unit in the world. During this period, he was credited with 8 more victories when he downed seven B-17 bombers and P-51 fighter aircraft.
He survived the war as a Me 262 fighter pilot with 208 certified aerial victories and 33 more possible, in total, in his 375 combat missions. He died in a car crash during a racing incident on June 11th, 1950 in Nurburgring.
9. Heinrich Ehrler – 208 kills
Ehrler spent most of his wartime experience on the Eastern Front, where he claimed the majority of his victories. Nine more victories were attributed to him on the Western Front, eight of which were achieved flying the Me 262 jet fighter. He joined the Wehrmacht in 1935 and served as an anti-aircraft gunner in the Condor Legion during the Spanish Civil War.
In 1944, his name was slurred as he was used as a scapegoat after the disastrous sinking of a Bismarck-class battleship, the Tirpitz, during an RAF bombing raid. He was put to house-arrest. At that time he was nominated for the Knights Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves and Swords, but, because of the incident, was never awarded it. He was court-martialled, stripped of command over his fighter unit and put under house arrest.
The High Command later called him to fill in the ranks, for the war was rapidly approaching its end. His fellow pilots reported that Ehrler took the job with apathy as the once glorious triumphs of the Luftwaffe deteriorated to suicide missions by the end of the war.
He himself ended his life by ramming into an American bomber. Ehrler’s last radio transmission was: “Theo, I have run out of ammunition. I’m going to ram this one. Good bye. We’ll see each other in Valhalla.” “Theo” refers to Theodor Weissenberger, the number ten on our list.
8. Hemann Graf – 212 kills
Hermann Graf was, like many others, achieved his ace status in the bloody air battles above the Soviet Union. There he claimed 202 victories, becoming the first pilot in history to gain such score. Prior to the war, Graf was a football player and a glider pilot-enthusiast. He joined the Luftwaffe in 1935, where he was initially selected for transport aviation, but transferred to Jagdgeschwader 51 in 1939.
Just before the war, he was stationed on the Franco-German border where he did patrol duty. He also served as a flight instructor in Romania, where he provided training for Romanian pilots. During the occupation of Crete, he supported the ground forces in the final stages of invasion. Graf flew 830 combat missions and won 10 more aerial victories on the Western Front, which includes six four-engine bombers and one Mosquito.
After the war, he was captured by the Americans but handed over to the Soviets. He survived the Soviet POW camps and returned to Germany. Hermann Graf died in 1988, in his hometown, Engen.
7. Heinrich Bär – 220 kills
Bär fought on all major German theaters of war ― he flew missions on the Mediterranean, Eastern and Western fronts with a total score of more than a thousand flights. He was shot down 18 times and was wounded three times and survived. Bär claimed 220 or 221 aerial victories, 16 of which were achieved while flying the Me 262 jet fighter, which was, at that time, fairly difficult to man.
Bär was a Saxon, proud of his thick accent, who joined the Reichswehr in 1934 and transferred to Luftwaffe in 1935. Initially serving as a mechanic, he gradually managed to pilot a transport aircraft, while informally training for a fighter plane. He achieved his first aerial victory on the French border in a skirmish in September 1939.
From that moment on, he went to become one of the leading aces of the Luftwaffe. During the Battle of Britain, his score reached 17. When the invasion of the Soviet Union started, Bär he transferred to the Eastern Front, where he accumulated further kills. In February 1942, Bär was awarded the Knight’s Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves and Swords. During the last years of the war, Bär also flew in the Me 262 jet fighter, claiming 17 victories.
At the end of the war on May 4, 1945, Bär ordered his pilots to surrender, after destroying their Me 262 jets. This decision wasn’t taken lightly by his commanding officers and he was almost shot for insubordination. He avoided the firing squad, surrendered and survived the war.
6. Erich Rudorffer – 222 kills
Major Erich Rudorffer was certainly one of the most dedicated German aces. He served in all theaters of war, since the very start in Poland. Similar to his colleague, Bär, Rudorffer also flew more than a thousand missions and was shot down 16 times, during which he parachuted nine times and the rest included crash-landing.
He holds the seventh place on an internationally recognized list of best pilots in the history of aerial warfare. More than 300 of his flights included combat. In the Eastern Front, he claimed 58 victories over the feared armored IL-2 Sturmovik ground attack aircraft. On one occasion, in 1941, he claimed that he had sunk a British submarine near the Isle of Portland, but the Royal Navy claimed otherwise. The Luftwaffe gave him credit only for damaging the submarine.
Erich Rudorffer is the last living recipient of the Knight’s Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves and Swords. The award was given during WWII for extreme bravery on the battlefield or for outstanding military leadership.
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