For Muslims living in the Holy Land, the arrival of Christian crusaders from the late 11th century onwards was hugely disruptive. It brought misery to…

The growing effectiveness of metal armour created a challenge for medieval soldiers. While the elite of knights and men-at-arms were now well protected, the majority…

On the surface, the First Crusade looks like something with a simple cause – the hatred of one religious group for another. In reality, the…