The Assyrian Empire was one of the most powerful military forces in the Middle East. From the 14th to the 8th century BC, it grew from a defense of the Assyrian farming heartlands to a swathe of conquered territory running from the Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf.
How did the Assyrians rise to such dominance?
The striking strength of Assyrian armies came from their chariots.
The chariot was in use in the Assyrian region in the 13th century BC. It was developed by the Hurrian and Mittian people into a useful weapon of war. These early chariots were heavy vehicles drawn by four horses, more like transport wagons than the battle implements of later centuries. They provided a mobile platform from which attacks could be made and a quick way of moving around the battlefield. They were not very maneuverable.
As the centuries progressed, these wagons developed into agile two-wheeled chariots. They allowed Assyrian chariot teams to race around the battlefield launching powerful and sudden attacks. Initially, they were ridden by two men – one driving and the other fighting with either a lance or a bow. In later centuries, a shield-bearer or two was added, providing greater protection for those on board.
The Assyrians employed chariots in two ways. Sometimes they were used as shock troops at the center of an attack, breaking the strength of massed infantry. At other times they were used on the wings, harassing and surrounding the enemy.
Horses were so important to Assyrian warfare that raids were made especially to capture more. Lists of horse supplies were maintained.
The most effective tool of the Assyrian infantry was the bow. Many men were equipped with spears, but it was the bow that allowed the massed Assyrians to outfight their foes in open battle, in skirmishes in broken terrain, and in siege warfare.
The bows in Assyrian armies varied wildly. Some were composite weapons while others were simply made of wood. Arrows heads were usually metal, but some arrows were tipped with bone or flint. Tail feathers were obtained from eagles or vultures to make the flights.
Flaming arrows referred to as the “messenger of death,” were used when attacking wooden buildings and crops.
Formations of archers included shield bearers to protect the vulnerable bowmen. These shields were as tall as a man and sometimes curved over at the top to protect the archers from falling missiles.
An Organized Army
The troops were effectively deployed thanks to a very organized army.
The Assyrian Kings had a royal bodyguard, including a contingent of foreign troops, which provided a permanent fighting force and professional core for the military. The bulk of soldiers were raised by a mass levy from across the nation. Farmers, hill men, and nomads joined to provide a significantly large force.
There was a permanent branch of the civil service which kept a census of the Empire’s citizens. They could then be called up for tasks such as public building projects and wars.
Once raised, the army worked within a well-defined structure. At the head was the King. Next was a field marshal responsible for the details of running the military. There followed a clear chain of command down to the officers running units of ten men.
Large units were identified by standards showing divine symbols of gods such as Shamash (the sun) and Nergal (the god of destruction).